Heating system performance analysis, optimisation and layout design

General Provisions

Development of heating schemes and setting up the heating system is a complex task. Important steps in setting up thermal networks is the development and introduction of the technical and organizational measures to ensure the calculated temperature in the heated rooms and calculated of heat carrier supply to each heat consumption's system. Significantly improve the heating systems' quality adjustment allow carrying out calculations with full instrument inspections networks' and power equipment consumers' implementation.

Calculations' purpose is the creation of optimal heating systems' hydraulic and thermal regimes and heat consumption systems, heat carrier's distribution between consumers in strict accordance with the thermal load.

Instrumental survey are needed to determine the actual parameters of the heating system, check and clarify the actual heat consumption, the introduction of the calculated thermal regimes and their control. For a survey instrument STC "Sigma" is equipped with the necessary instrumentation and tool base.

For best results we can not limit the implementation of individual measures. For example, it is impossible to achieve thermal stability of hydraulic networks, only the installation of the calculated throttle devices or only the introduction of heat source's calculated mode. To the performance of chain "heat source - heating systems - the consumer" should be the full range of activities, the list of which is determined separately for each link. All activities's execution can liquidate overspending heat in the heating system, to improve heat's quality through the elimination of buildings' "excessive heat" and "insufficient heat", reduce fuel electricity in gear the pumps.

Federal Law number 190 of 27 July 2010 commits to provide heat supply organizations that own source of thermal energy for district heating scheme approval, that's why direction of STC "Sigma" on heating supply schemes settlements' development is relevant.

Survey instrument reserch

Modern equipment are used to determine the factual parameters of elements of the heating system, including:


    - Ultrasonic flow meter is required to determine the flow heat transfer as heating supply system as a whole and individual consumers;

- The thermal imager is used to determine slag's locations accumulations in the heating system and cold air's infiltration through the building envelope;

 - Contact thermometer complete with a variety of probes allows to determine pipeline's surface temperature and the actual performance of interior building's microclimate;

 - Actual heat loss through the insulation of pipelines and building envelope determines by using heat flux density meter;


 - A laser range meter is used to measure the lengths of piping, definition and calculation of buildings' geometric parameters.


It should be noted that instrumental survey consumers heating systems and thermal power equipment can not select an independent stage set-up of thermal and hydraulic regimes. Instrumental examinations are complementary tool, with which you can greatly improve the quality of services provided.

Setting up of heating systems' thermal and hydraulic regimes

Setting up of heating systems' thermal and hydraulic regimes is a complex task, which can be solved in several stages: database compilation, calculation of heating systems, heating system's adjustment.

Stage 1. Database compilation

At this stage the database compile parameters of heat's elements, which is usually not available or is not accurate.
In compiling the database, performs the following types of work:
- Specifies the type and condition of the equipment the heating system (pipe diameters and condition, length of sections and local resistance, consumers' circuit connection);
- Clarifies the nature and magnitude of heat consumption (definition of real stress for the individual objects in case of absence data on a special technique which allows according to test results to determine buildings' heating characteristics);
- A mathematical computer heating system's model.
As a result, a data-base parameters of heating system's elements are determined by the actual operating conditions and heating systems' real state, the possibility of further operation and degree of the necessary reconstruction or modernization, are defined priorities and the most effective measures.
Also mandatory to check whether the database compiled by heating system's actual characteristics.

Stage 2. Heat networks' calculation

 STK "Sigma" calculates the heating systems using a powerful specialized software "SKF - TS." This complex is a multifunctional computer system developed for a wide range of tasks for managing a complex system of heat supply pipeline management.

The system is effectively used for the analysis and design of changes networks in order to improve their parameters. Losses on the plan by the color display can be clearly seen as bottlenecks and low loaded sections of pipelines. Based on specific losses' analysis, make recommendations for changes in pipe diameters in the performance of their planned replacement.

Heat networks' calculation is performed in two stages: the commissioning and calibration.
The target of calculation and adjustment is the creation of optimal hydraulic regimes in heating systems and heat consumption systems, heat carrier distribution between consumers in strict accordance with the thermal load. As a result of the calculation is performed throttle orifices to provide the estimated cost heat carrier and air temperature inside the building at a given Available pressure on the heat source.
Aim of verification is to identify calculation of the actual flow on heating networks' sections and consumers at a given temperature, water supply temperature, Available pressure at the source and installed throttle orifice obtained from the preliminary calculation.
The calculation are defined accurate values:
- heat carrier flow;
- Heat loss and pressure loss in pipes;
- The pressure in the network nodes, including External pressure from consumers;
- Temperature of the heat carrier at network's nodes.
Causes' analyz of worsening the heating system operation is based on data from the first two phases, and measures being developed to optimize its operation.

Stage 3. Adjusting the heating systems

Adjusting the heating network provides them with a hydraulic sustainability, you can adjust the uniform supply of heat to all customers in accordance with the project or the colculated loads. This creates a stable hydraulic and thermal modes, less power is consumed for the transportation heat carrier.
The following types of work performs, when adjusting the heating systems:
- Assembling mixing and throttle devices;
- Instrument control networks' parameters;
- Regulation works.
Specialists STC "Sigma" carry out instrumental control parameters of thermal networks, after doing all the work.
Thermal loads on the individual consumers can be performed refinement during the commissioning of thermal and heat networks' hydraulic regimes, additionally, at customer's request.